Injuries in Competitive Austrian Gymnasts

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Klaus Greier

  •   Clemens Drenowatz

  •   Johannes Mairoser

Abstract

Background: Competitive gymnastics is a physically demanding sport that requires flexibility, coordination, endurance and strength. The biomechanics of the sport also result in a specific injury profile.


Methods: A total of 30 gymnasts from the Austrian national team (21.9±3.9 years) and 25 competitive gymnasts not affiliated with the national team (22.8±6.4 years) provided information on their injuries of a 3-year period (2018-2020) via an online survey. The injury rate per 1000 hours of training was calculated and injuries were stratified by severity, injured body structure and the localization of the injury. Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests were used to examine differences between national team and non-national team gymnasts.


Results: A total of 64 injuries were reported, which resulted in 0.4 injuries per 1000 hours of training. There was no difference in injury rate per training hours; national team members, however, reported significantly more injuries per person compared to their non-national team peers (1.4±1.1 vs. 0.8±1.0; p=0,04). The most common tissue affected by injuries were tendons and ligaments (59%) while muscle injuries were the least common injuries (11%). Almost half of the injuries (47%) affected the lower extremities, with ankle injuries being the most common ones. Roughly 80% of injuries were considered minor to moderate and could be treated via outpatient care. Across the different disciplines of gymnastics most injuries were reported during floor routines (36%) followed by vault (16%).


Conclusion: Injury risk was directly associated with training volume. Severe injuries, however, were rare even in highly competitive gymnasts.


Keywords: competitive gymnastics, injury risk, training, floor gymnastics, sports injuries

References

Bak K, Kalms S., Olesen, J., & Jargensen, U. (1994). Epidemiology of injuries in gymnastics. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 4: 148-154.

Boschert, H. (2016). Gerätturnen. In M. Engelhardt (Hg.), Sportverletzungen: Diagnose, Management und Begleitmaßnahmen (3. Aufl., S. 687–696). Urban & Fischer.

Campbell, R., Bradshaw, E., Ball, N., Pease, D., & Spratford, W. (2019). Injury epidemiology and risk factors in competitive artistic gymnasts: a systematic review. British journal of sports medicine, 53(17), 1056–1069.

Caine, D. J. & Nassar, L. (2005). Gymnastics injuries. Medicine and sport science, 48, 18-58.

Caine, D., Knutzen, K., Howe, W., Keeler, L., Sheppard, L., Herichs,D., et al. (2003). A three-year epidemiological study of injuries affecting young female gymnasts. Phys Ther Sport, 4, 10-23.

d’Hemecourt, P., & Luke, A. (2012). Sport-Specific Biomechanics of Spinal Injuries in Aesthetic Athletes (Dancers, Gymnasts, and Figure Skaters). Clin Sports Med, 31, 397-408.

Desai, N., Vance, D., Rosenwasser, M., & Ahmad, C. (2019). Artistic Gymnastics Injuries; Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg, 27(13), 459-467.

Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique. (2021a). Discipline. https://www.gymnastics.sport/site/pages/disciplines/hist-mag.php.

Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique. (2021b). Rules. https://www.fig-gymnastics.com/site/rules/#2

Gerhardt, C., Doyscher, R., Boschert, H., & Scheibel, M. (2014). Die Turnerschulter. Der Orthopäde, 43(3), 230–235.

Greier, K. (2012). Formen, Häufigkeit und Präventionsmöglichkeiten von Ballspielverletzungen im Schulsport. Eine 3-Jahres-Analyse. Sport-Orthopädie-Sport-Traumatologie, 28(2), 94-100.

Greier, K., Riechelmann, H., & Ziemska, J. (2013). Sportverletzungen im Vollkontakt- und Semikontaktkarate, Sportverletzung-Sportschaden, 28, 31-35.

Greier, K. & Leimlehner, F. (2014). Verletzungen im Kunstturnen - Häufigkeiten, Art, Lokalisation und Ursachen von Verletzungen bei 10- bis 18-jährigen Leistungsturnern. Sport-Orthopädie-Sport-Traumatologie, 30(3), 249–255.

Grim, C., Engelhardt, M. & Valderrabano, V. (2016). Die Sportlerschulter: Diagnostik, Behandlungsmanagement, Rehabilitation. Schattauer.

Harringe, M., Nordgren, J., Arvidsson, I., & Werner, S. (2007). Low back pain in young female gymnasts and the effect of specific segmental muscle control exercises of the lumbar spine: a prospective controlled intervention study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 15, 1264-1271.

Hart, E., Meehan, W., Bae, D., d’Hemecourt, P., & Stracciolini, A. (2018). The Young Injured Gymnast: A Literature Review and Discussion. Curr Sports Med Rep, 17(11), 366-375.

Heitkamp, H., & Horstmann, T. (2005). Wirbelsäulenbeschwerden und -verletzungen sowie sportmedizinische Untersuchungen bei Nachwuchsleistungsturnerinnen, Sportverletzung-Sportschaden, 19, 77-81.

Keith, R. (2013). The evolution of gymnastics. In D. J. Caine, K. Russell & L. Liesbeth (Hg.), Handbook of sports medicine and science. Gymnastics (S. 3–14). John Wiley & Sons.

Kirialanis, P., Malliou, P., Beneka, A., Gourgoulis, V., Giofstidou, A., & Godolias, G. (2002). Injuries in artistic gymnastic elite adolescent male and female athletes. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation, 16(4), 145–151.

Kirialanis, P. Malliou, P., Beneka, A., & Giannakopoulos, K. (2003). Occurrence of acute lower limb injuries in artistic gymnastis in relation to event and exercise phase. British journal of sports medicine, 37, 137-139.

Kirialanis P, Dallas, G., Di Cagno, A., & Fiorilli, G. (2015). Knee injuries at landing and take-off phase in gymnastics. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 7(1), 17–25.

Knobloch, K., Jagodzinski, M., Haasper, C., Zeichen, J., & Krettek, C. (2006). Turnunfälle im Schulsport - Ansätze für präventive Massnahmen. Sportverletzung Sportschaden, 20(2), 81–85.

Kolt, G. & Kirkby, R. (1999). Epidemiology of injury in elite and subelite female gymnasts: a comparison of retrospective and prospective findings. British journal of sports medicine, 33(5), 312–318.

Kruse, D., Nobe, A. & Billimek, J. (2021). Injury incidence and characteristics for elite, male, artistic USA gymnastics competitions from 2008 to 2018. British journal of sports medicine, 55(3), 163-168.

Marshall, S. W., Covassin, T., Dick, R., Nassar, L., & Agel, J. (2007). Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's gymnastics injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004. Journal of athletic training, 42(2), 234–240.

ÖFT (2021a). Kunstturnen männlich. https://www.oeft.at/de/sport/kunstturnen/kunstturnen-maennlich.

ÖFT (2021b). Kunstturnen weiblich. https://www.oeft.at/de/sport/kunstturnen.

Paxinos, O., Mitrogiannis, L., Papavasiliou, A., Manolarakis, E., Siempenou, A., Alexelis, V., & Karavasili, A. (2019). Musculoskeletal injuries among elite artistic and rhythmic Greek gymnasts: A ten-year study of 156 elite athletes. Acta orthopaedica Belgica, 85(2), 145–149.

Prohl, R. (2009). Grundriss der Sportpädagogik. (3. Aufl). Limpert.

Sands, W. (2005) Injury Prevention in Women`s Gymnastics. Sports Med, 30, 359-373.

Schwabowski, R., Brzank, R., & Nicklas, I. (2010). Rhythmische Sportgymnastik. Leistung -Technik – Methodik. 3. Aufl. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer.

Seegmiller, J. & McCaw, S. (2003). Ground reaction forces among gymnasts and recreational athletes in drop landings, J Athl Train, 38, 311-314.

Thomas, R. & Thomas, B. (2019). A systematic review of injuries in gymnastics. The Physician and sportsmedicine, 47(1), 96–121.

Weineck, J. (2007). Optimales Training. Leistungsphysiologische Trainingslehre unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Kinder- und Jugendtrainings. 15. Aufl. Balingen: Spitta.

Wolf, M., Avery, D., & Wolf, J. (2017). Upper Extremity Injuries in Gymnasts. Hand Clin, 33(1):187-197.

Verhagen, E., van der Beek, A., & Twisk, J. (2004). The effect of a proprioceptive balance board training program for the prevention of ankle sprains. Am J Sport Med, 32, 1385-1393.

Zetaruk, M., Violán, M., Zurakowski, D., & Micheli, L. (2005). Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles. Br. J. Sports. Med, 39, 29-33.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Greier, K., Drenowatz, C., & Mairoser, J. (2022). Injuries in Competitive Austrian Gymnasts . European Journal of Sport Sciences, 1(2), 10–15. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejsport.2022.1.2.10